|Trouble Code||Fault Location||Probable Cause|
|P0040||Oxygen sensor signals swapped, bank 1 sensor 1 /bank 2 sensor 1||Wiring|
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What Does Code P0040 Mean?
Modern vehicles use both an upstream and downstream oxygen sensor. The upstream oxygen sensor (O2S) is located ahead of the catalytic converter. It is used to determine the concentration of oxygen in the exhaust gas. This information is used by the PCM to control the engine air/fuel mixture. The sensor compares amount of oxygen in the exhaust to the surrounding air (there is an opening in the sensor that is exposed to the atmosphere). It generates a corresponding voltage which is transmitted to the PCM. The PCM then controls injector pulse based on this value.
The downstream oxygen sensor is located behind the catalytic converter and is used to check converter efficiency. It does so by checking the oxygen content of the exhaust after it leaves the converter. For this reason, downstream O2 sensors are known as catalyst monitors.
Modern vehicles use heated oxygen sensors (HO2S). These sensors contain a heating element that brings the sensor to operating temperature faster. This allows the PCM to use the signals input sooner, for more precise fuel control and reduced emissions. The heater circuit is energized through a relay that closes when the engine is cranked. The PCM monitors the heater circuit and will turn on the check engine light if it finds a problem.
The code P0040 stands for O2 signals swapped bank 1 sensor 1/bank 2 sensor 1. This is an usual code; it doesn’t come up often. It indicates that the oxygen sensor signals have been swapped. It is similar to P0041, which stands for O2 sensor signals swapped, bank 1 sensor 2/bank 2 sensor 2. The only difference in these codes is the location of the sensors. The same diagnostic strategies can be uses for both codes. It is typically Ford vehicles that support these codes.
O2 sensor locations
What are the common causes of code P0040 ?
To sum things up, the common causes for code P0040 are as follows:
- Crossed O2 sensor connectors or wiring
- Shorter or open O2 sensor wiring
- Faulty PCM
What are the symptoms of code P0040 ?
Usually, the only thing you will notice is an illuminated check engine light. If you live in a place that requires emissions testing, the check engine light will cause you to fail.
How do you troubleshoot code P0040 ?
- Visually inspect the O2 sensors and their connectors
First, make sure the O2 sensor connectors aren’t swapped. This can happen when work has been previously performed. Also check for unplugged or damaged connectors, as well as broken wiring.
- Visually inspect the O2 connections at the PCM
If everything looks OK at the O2 sensors, you’ll want to inspector the O2 sensor connections at the PCM. Look for damaged or crossed wires as well as swapped or broken connectors.
An example of an O2 sensor wiring diagram
- Check O2 sensor performance
If everything checks out OK visually, you’ll want to monitor O2 sensor performance next. This can be done on a scan tool or with a digital multimeter. The best method, however, is with an oscilloscope. This is because scan tool readings are only interpreted values.
If you’re going to use a scan tool, it’s best to view the O2 sensor voltage as a graph. If the upstream O2 sensor and corresponding circuit are operating properly, you will see an oscillating waveform at idle. It should fluctuate between its minimum value of around .1 volts to its maximum value of around .9 volts. An O2 sensor stuck at a fixed bias voltage is a sign of an open O2 sensor circuit or dedicated ground.
The downstream O2 sensor is a different story. If it and the catalytic converter are both operating properly, it should fluctuate very little compared to the upstream sensor. So, don’t be fooled if you don’t see the downstream sensor fluctuating.
An example of upstream and downstream O2 sensor signals
- Check the O2 sensor circuit
If your test results from the section above indicate a problem with the sensor circuit, now is the time to test it.
- Test the signal side of the circuit
Using a digital multimeter set to the ohms, connect one meter lead to the O2 sensor signal pin and the other to the sensor input pin on the PCM. This tests for continuity between the sensor and PCM. If your meter reads OL, there is an open somewhere in the circuit that must be repaired.
You can go a step further by checking voltage drop across the circuit. To do this, backprobe the sensor signal wire at the computer and at the O2 sensor connector. Next, set your digital multimeter set to volts. Allow the vehicle engine to idle and read the voltage drop on the multimeter screen. The voltage drop should not exceed the manufacturer’s specifications. A reading out of specification indicates high resistance in the circuit. The factory wiring diagram will need to be traced to pinpoint the problem.
An example of an typical 4-wire O2 sensor connector diagram
- Test the ground side of the circuit
Check the sensor ground with a digital multimeter set to ohms. Connect one lead to the ground wire pin at the sensor, and the other to the sensor ground pin at the PCM. This tests for continuity between the sensor and PCM. If your meter reads OL, there is an open somewhere in the circuit that must be repaired.
You can also check voltage drop across the ground side of the circuit. To do this, backprobe the ground signal wire at the computer and at the O2 sensor connector. Next, set your digital multimeter set to volts. Allow the vehicle engine to idle and read the voltage drop on the multimeter screen. The voltage drop should not exceed the manufacturer’s specifications. A reading out of specification indicates high resistance in the circuit. The factory wiring diagram will need to be traced to pinpoint the problem.
Note: Some sensors are grounded through the case of the sensor and the exhaust pipe. If you are testing this kinds of sensor, you’ll want to touch the meter lead to the O2 sensor case since there will be no dedicated ground wire.
- Check the PCM
If everything checks out to this point, it’s time to suspect a problem with the PCM. One way to check the PCM in regard to the O2 sensor operation is with a digital oscilloscope and a scan tool. Monitor the O2 sensor signal on the scope while simultaneously watching it on the scan tool. If the values don’t match, suspect a problem with the PCM. Keep in mind however, that PCMs rarely go bad. Before condemning the PCM it’s a good idea to double check your work.
Codes Related to P0040
DTC P0041: O2 sensor signals swapped, bank 1 sensor 2/bank 2 sensor 2.