P0016 – Crankshaft position/camshaft position, bank 1 sensor A -correlation
Last Updated 2022-09-19
ASE Master Tech
|Code||Fault Location||Probable Cause|
|P0016|| Crankshaft position/camshaft position, bank 1 sensor A -correlation |
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|Wiring, CKP sensor, CMP sensor, mechanical fault|
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Table of Contents
- What Does Code P0016 Mean?
- Where is the P0016 sensor located?
- What are the common causes of code P0016 ?
- How expensive is it to fix code P0016 ?
- What are the symptoms of code P0016 ?
- What are common solutions to code P0016 ?
- How serious is code P0016 ?
- How safe is it to still drive the car with code P0016 ?
- How difficult is it to repair code P0016 ?
- What are the common mistakes when repairing code P0016 ?
- How do you troubleshoot code P0016 ?
- Codes Related to P0016
- Get Help with P0016
What Does Code P0016 Mean?
The camshaft position sensor (CMP) is used to determine the position of the camshaft(s). It relays this information to the powertrain control module (PCM). The PCM then uses this information to control the fuel injectors, and on some applications, for ignition timing. The crankshaft position sensor (CKP) relays crankshaft position and engine RPM to the PCM, or ignition module. This information is used but the PCM to control ignition timing, and in some applications, it is also used to control fuel injection.
The two common CMP and CKP designs are Hall Effect and permanent magnet.
- Permanent magnet: creates an AC voltage signal that is proportional to engine speed.
A permanent magnet crankshaft sensor
(Courtesy: CP Fitters)
- Hall Effect: uses a reference voltage from the PCM to produce a DC voltage signal.
A Hall Effect crankshaft sensor
Inside the engine, the crankshaft and camshaft are held together by a timing belt or timing chain, which keeps them synchronized. The CKP and CMP sensors work together to keep the PCM informed about engine timing. Should the timing be off, the PCM will set a code P0016. This code stands for Crankshaft Position – Camshaft Position Correlation (Bank 1 Sensor A).
Where is the P0016 sensor located?
On most applications, the camshaft position sensor(s) are located in or on the valve cover to place the sensor(s) in close proximity with a reluctor ring or protrusion on the camshaft(s) that interrupt(s) the sensors’ magnetic field to produce a signal. Crankshaft position sensors can be located on the crankshaft pulley (aka harmonic balancer), the flywheel/flex plate, or on the fuel pump on some diesel applications.
What are the common causes of code P0016 ?
- A faulty cam or crank sensor
- The cam or crank circuit is open or shorted
- The timing belt/chain is out of time
- The cam or crank tone ring is slipped/broken
- A problem in the VVT system
- The PCM is faulty
How expensive is it to fix code P0016 ?
Due to the high number of possible causes of code P0016, as well as the wide range of current prices of replacement parts for every possible part that can fail and set this code as a result, it is not possible to provide a repair cost estimate for this code that is even reasonably accurate for any part of the USA. However, this resource offers a cost estimator that lists both parts and labor costs for all popular makes and models in all areas of the US market.
What are the symptoms of code P0016 ?
Code P0016 may be accompanied by several different symptoms. These including: an engine that runs poorly, an engine that cranks but will not start and an illuminated check engine light.
What are common solutions to code P0016 ?
The most common solution to this code is the replacement/repair of wiring, followed by replacement of crankshaft/camshaft position sensors if the engine timing is known to be good. Less common solutions include replacement of reluctor rings, or VVT/VCT oil control solenoids. Note that PCM failures are rare.
How serious is code P0016 ?
Code P0016 should be considered serious, since the vehicle can be completely immobilized if the correlation between the crankshaft and camshaft position sensors fails completely. Moreover, depending on the application and the nature of the problem, some types of engines (interference type engines with timing belts) can suffer serious, if not always fatal damage should the timing belt break or slip.
How safe is it to still drive the car with code P0016 ?
Ideally, a vehicle with this code should not be driven until the fault is found and repaired, and especially not in traffic, since the engine can stall at any time.
How difficult is it to repair code P0016 ?
In most cases, repairing this code should not present the average non-professional mechanic with undue difficulties, since the diagnostic procedure mainly involves testing circuits to verify that the resistance, continuity, ground integrity and (where applicable), reference voltages comply with values specified by the manufacturer.
However, in some cases, such as where the fault persists but the sensors’ control circuits check out, it may be necessary to test the operation of individual sensors with an oscilloscope. Note however that such tests can only be performed if the relevant reference data in the form of a wave form library is available. If an oscilloscope and suitable reference data is not available, the better option is to refer the vehicle for professional diagnosis and repair.
What are the common mistakes when repairing code P0016 ?
In many cases, sensors are condemned and replaced out of hand, when it is far more common for damaged, burnt, disconnected, or corroded wiring and/or connectors to be the real problem. Also note that poor workmanship during a timing belt or timing chain replacement can cause this code if timing marks on either or both the crankshaft and/or camshaft(s) are not properly aligned.
Timing of both the crankshaft and camshaft(s) should therefore always be verified before any components are replaced, and especially on applications that are fitted with variable valve or camshaft timing, since low oil levels, insufficient oil pressure, or failed VVT/VCT solenoids can also cause this code, or contribute to its setting.
How do you troubleshoot code P0016 ?
- Perform a visual inspection of the sensors and connections.
Many problems can easily be found in the harness and connectors. So, begin your diagnosis by visually inspecting the sensors and their connections.
- Test the sensor output
Testing the sensor varies slightly, depending on which type of sensor your vehicle uses.
- Permanent magnet sensor: A permanent magnet sensor can be tested using an ohmmeter (DVOM). Remove the sensor connector and attach the meter to the sensor terminals. Consult the manufactures repair information for the resistance specifications. Of course, a meter reading of OL measure there is an open in the sensor and it should be replaced. Next, crank the engine and watch the ohmmeter – the reading should fluctuate. You can also do this with your meter set to read AC voltage. If there is no change in the reading, the sensor is bad and should be replaced.
Testing a permanent magnet sensor
- Hall Effect sensor: Using the repair information for your vehicle, determine which pin on the sensor connector is the signal return wire. Using your DVOM on the DC voltage setting, back probe the sensor wire. Attach the black multimeter cable to battery ground. Cranking the engine, you should see the voltage reading on the meter fluctuate.
Testing a Hall Effect Sensor
Note that a damaged or improperly aligned tone ring will also prevent proper sensor operation. When in doubt, remove the cam gear and the crankshaft harmonic balancer and inspect the tone rings.
- Test the sensors circuits
If the cam and cranks sensor check out OK, but you still have P0016 code illuminated, you’ll need to check the sensor circuit.
- Permanent magnet sensor: A permanent magnet sensor produces its own voltage, so it will only have two wires going to it – ground and return signal. Start by consulting the wiring diagram for your vehicle to determine which pin on the connector is signal and which is ground. All Data DIY is probably the easiest place to source your vehicle’s wiring diagram. Next, connect the red multimeter lead to the battery positive terminal and the black lead to the ground pin. You should see a reading of about 12 volts indicating a good ground. If not, you’ll need to consult the ground side of the wiring diagram to find where the circuit fault lies. Next, check that there is continuity to the PCM. You can do this by touching one meter lead to the return signal pin on the sensor connector and the other to signal pin on the PCM. Set your meter to the ohms setting – you should see a value appear on the screen. If instead, your meter reads OL, you have an open circuit and will need to trace the factory wiring diagram.
- Hall Effect Sensor: A Hall Effect Sensor has three wires: signal, reference and ground. Start by consulting the wiring diagram (All Data DIY) for your vehicle to determine which pin on the connector is which. Next, connect the red multimeter lead to the battery positive terminal and the black lead to the ground pin. You should see a reading of about 12 volts indicating a good ground. Then, check that the 5-volt reference is getting to the sensor by connecting the red multimeter lead to the reference voltage pin and the other to ground. You should see a reading of about 5 volts indicating a good reference voltage. Finally, check that there is continuity to the PCM. You can do this by touching one meter lead to the return signal pin on the sensor connector and the other to signal pin on the PCM. Set your meter to the ohms setting – you should see a value appear on the screen. If instead, your meter reads OL, you have an open circuit and will need to trace the factory wiring diagram.
- Test the sensor synchronization
CMP/CKP Synch status (yes/no) is displayed on many scan tools, but unfortunately, that parameter can’t always be trusted. The best way to test cam and crank sensors, as well as their synchronization, is with an oscilloscope. Increasingly more manufactures are offering sample wave form patterns in their repair information, which should be consulted before testing. The timing relationship (synchronization) of the two sensors will be distorted if a timing belt jumps time, a cam gear slips, a timing chain gets loose or a cam phaser misbehaves. Cracked reluctors and missing reluctors can also lead to an altered waveform pattern.
Hooking up a scope to a Hall Effect sensor
If the synchronization pattern is distorted, you need to find out why. In most cases, this will involve engine disassembly to the point of failure. Removing the timing cover and checking that the timing marks line up is one of the first things to do. Both timing belts and timing chains may stretch over time and/or have a failed tensioner.
An example of a cam and crank pattern
Variable valve timing (VVT) system components can cause cam/crank correlation problems as well. These systems are often dependent on oil pressure, so checking the oil level is a good place to start. A plugged or failed oil control valve can also cause VVT problems.
VVT solenoids can be tested for continuity or resistance with a digital multimeter. The solenoid circuit should also be tested for proper power and ground. In addition, the solenoids can also be removed and jumpered to battery voltage to confirm operation. Many scan tools also offer bi-directional testing of the solenoids with just the push of a button.
Codes Related to P0016
- DTC: P0010 “A” Camshaft Position Actuator Circuit (Bank 1)
- DTC: P0011 “A” Camshaft Position – Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance (Bank 1)
- DTC: P0012 “A” Camshaft Position – Timing Over-Retarded (Bank 1)
- DTC: P0013 “B” Camshaft Position – Actuator Circuit (Bank 1)
- DTC: P0014 “B” Camshaft Position – Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance (Bank 1) – See Trouble Code P0011
- DTC: P0015 “B” Camshaft Position -Timing Over-Retarded (Bank 1) – See Trouble Code P0012
- DTC: P0016 Crankshaft Position – Camshaft Position Correlation (Bank 1 Sensor A)
- DTC: P0017 Crankshaft Position – Camshaft Position Correlation (Bank 1 Sensor)
- DTC: P0018 Crankshaft Position – Camshaft Position Correlation (Bank 2 Sensor A)
- DTC: P0019 Crankshaft Position – Camshaft Position Correlation (Bank 2 Sensor )
- DTC: P0020 “A” Camshaft Position Actuator Circuit (Bank 2)
- DTC: P0021 “A” Camshaft Position – Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance (Bank 2)
- DTC: P0022 “A” Camshaft Position – Timing Over-Retarded (Bank 2)
- DTC: P0023 “B” Camshaft Position – Actuator Circuit (Bank 2) – See Trouble Code P0020
- DTC: P0024 “B” Camshaft Position – Timing Over-Advanced or System Performance (Bank 2) – See Trouble Code P0021
- DTC: P0025 “B” Camshaft Position – Timing Over-Retarded (Bank 2) – See Trouble Code P0022
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I replaced cam and crank shaft and I still getting limp mode sometimes. the idle at start up takes forever to figure out and check engine light comes on. I’m getting this code on the reader. I think it might need new wires?
Do you mean you replace the camshaft and crankshaft position sensors? Have you checked the wiring that goes to them? There may be a wiring fault somewhere between the ECM and the sensors themselves if you’re still coming up with P0016.
Are you coming up with different DTCs now?
I HAVE A 2008 HHR CHEVY AND I STOPPED AND GOT GAS AND THEN ABOUT 10 MILES DOWN THE ROAD IT STARTED LOSEING POWER AND THEN DIE . IT WILL CRANK BUT WILL NOT HIT A LICK . PULLED PLUGS AND THEY ARE ALL FIRING REAL GOOD AND AS CHECKING THEM THERE WAS GAS COMING OUT OF PLUG HOLES . PUT KNEW CRANK AND CAM SENSORS IN BUT DID NOT HELP ANY. NOW THE CODE READS P0016 IT WILL NOT EVEN TRY TO START ANY IDEA
I have 2007 Toyota vitiz with 3 piston ,1000 cc .
after long drive and some millage i saw check engine ,then after i stop the engine and park it the check engine stop and illuminate agine after some millage .
i have check it with computer get P00016 fault Code .
can you please assist me and is it good to drive with this fault .
Hello Filimin. Yes its okay to drive, but not long term. The timing appears to be off or out of sync in your timing belt system. I wouldnt waste time throwing sensors at it just yet; I would just take it to a mechnic who could align your timing marks perfectly, then erase the code. The crankshaft position and cam position have to be perfect, or things will be awry in your car as a whole. the timing may have jumped a bit. Hope this helped you, and good luck.
Hi, I’am looking for Daihatsu Terios PCM diagram. How can I get it?
I have a 08 toyota rav4 v6. Waterpump and thermastat was replaced same day I got it back and 3rd time I started that day it made a loud raddle noise for a second. I havnt heard that noise before and wondering if the cam shaft actuator could have been harmed when waterpumpbwas replaced
Hello Megan. I do think your timing chain did jump some teeth on the cam and crank. I would take it back to who did the water pump and thermostat so they can fix it right.
Hoping for a response before I head off to the VW specialist tomorrow.
I fuelled up the car. Turned it back on – it would cut off. Glow plug lights would illuminate.
After a few failed attempts, the car started again.
Breakdown guy pulled this code out:
System Type: ENGINE SYSTEM TEST/VALUES
Name: CFGB – TDI-CR
DTC: P001600,Crankshaft Position – Camshaft Position Correlation – Bank 1 Sensor A
I drove the car back 80miles without a single issue. What could it be?
Hello Isaac. Before taking it to your specialist, I believe you could end up getting your camshaft position actuator changed, or a new timing belt kit. Regards.
Ford 2009 Edge. Has V6 3.7L. Oil was changed. First P0015 & P0016. Then P0016 went away. Took it back and had them put new oil in (they over filled by quart). 15 & 16 went away, for a short time. Then P0016 came back. Put in new CPS’s (had it apart figured do both). P0016 will still trip intermittently. Let about half quart oil out. P0016 will still trip once in a while. No loss of performance though. Just strange, no problems till oil change. Check engine light does not come on now. If I didn’t have the OB reader hooked up, I would never notice.
Sorry, it’s a 3.5l V6
Gosh, I am like 85% sure it’s the water pump, which is chain driven off the same chain as the cam shafts and the drive shaft. Don’t see any leakage throw the weep hole, but there is like steam or smoke coming out of the dip stick hole when I check it. Oil really isn’t milky, but sure does look awfully dirty. The coolant level has gone down by about a 1/8th an inch. Just worried that a water pump replacement is like $1400 or more.
Interesting new development. If I cam out on the highway and keep it at highway speeds, it will not throw the P0016 at highway speeds. Above 1000 rpm. Drove for 20 miles checking and it wouldn’t throw the code. But when I stopped to turn around, it threw the code. A bit of help would be appreciated Mr. Olsen.
Hello mr. Rice. Okay, so after hearing your symptoms, and digging into this a bit more. Here’s what I came up with for you. If you can, try to check voltage on a violet colored wire going to your intake variable cam timing solenoid.if you have voltage going to this solenoid, and If your timing is okay, replace the variable cam timing solenoid. This should cure your problem. Remeber it ks for the intake cam, not the exhaust cam solenoid. Cheers.
Helo mr. RICE. I dont really think it is the water pump quite honestly. Yes it may be chain driven, but honestly I think it may have jumped time a few teeth. This can happen when a chain becomes worn and doesnt get replaced or adjusted at regular intervals. I noticed you have quite a few miles on your rig. The sensor A is a cam posotion sensor on the exhaust cam. Maybe start by looking at the wiring harness on the sensor itself meanwhile having someone check the timing of your vehicle, or if you know how to do it yourself. Hope this narrows down your search, and that it can be timed correctly. Although overfilling your oil by a quart can be bad, looks like you handled it already and don’t think that is the reason for the code. If the crank cam correlation are out of sync, it is usually just out of timing.
Regards, Nathaniel. A.S.E certified technician.
Buonasera, ho un problema con scirocco 1.4 TSI 122 CV, si accende la spia motore e dalla diagnosi mi da il codice P0016, ho sostituito il sensore albero a camme ma non ho risolto la cattura ha 150.000 km e mi è stato detto che potrebbe essere la catena allungata e il motore sfasato, preventivo circa 1.400 euro. Possibile? Mi dicono che con la catena va anche sostituito il variatore di fase che costa ben 460 euro, devo fidarmi? a me sembra un po strano, aspetto un vostro conforto grazie.
I have a 2011 Kia Sorento 4 cyl 2.4 L fwd. 1.5 years ago I had to accelerate to enter a freeway, and a minute later the engine bogged down with check engine light coming on. It kind of came back unbogging. After visit mechanic who reset a misfire error, the car was running ok with no light.
Then last winter I had some some wheel work done. It was about the coldest night of the winter. Engine light came back on. The oil could have been compromised – old, cold and slow.
So recently Tlthere were several codes – around 3. It took several seconds to start with the right punch on gas.
Replacing the camshaft sensors removed all but P0016. The car starts fine. Runs OK.
The OCV solenoids tested around 8 to 10.5 ohms at hot temperatures with spec ranges between 6.7 to 7.9 @ 68 deg F on the 2-3 mfgs.
I took out the exhaust OCV and it clicked fine with 12 volts momentary applied.
Where do I go from here? Stretched chain, phasers wacked, or what? The OCV oil filter is not inside behind the OCV but between cam and head.
Anyway last oil change exposed very old oil. New filter is KnE Gold high flow.
I have a 2008 Mustang 4.6L engine. After changing out the cams with ford performance cams and added the SVT tunes. I received code P0016. I have been running it this way for about 8 months now with no issues. Now its time for car inspection and I can’t get rid of this code. The car runs great and I can’t figure out the problem. Any guesses?
Why is there no info on the 2012 chrysler 300 with 3.6L VVT? I have replaced both camshaft position sensors which are located on the top of the engine towards the back firewall of the engine. They each have 4 wires but the internet only references 2 or 3 wire configurations.
What is the parameters of the camshaft sensors for this vehicle and also do I have to relearn the system after replacing these sensors?
I’ve tested the plug and crankshaft position sensor which came back 4.8 volts and .742 ohms respectfully. This is all do to a code P0016. Your thoughts please..
I have a 2006 Kia Sedona and the oil leaked out somehow and i don’t realize it. The P0016 code came on along with some misfires. I quickly stopped driving it and did a check and realized the oil problem and got some in there and since then it only stays with the P0016 code. There’s no fuel efficiency issues just some slow acceleration. What do you think? Also I was told there is a small crack above the oil pan.
Hi, I have the code P0016 on my Porsche Cayenne Turbo 2010 V8 engine . Crankshaft Position – Camshaft Position Correlation (Bank 1 Sensor A)
Please can you help me to identify the correct position left or Right ?
When you seat in the car this is the left one or Right one ?
I have a 2009 chevy express with a 6.0 liter engine i have code for a camshaft sensor and a crank sensor.I did the test on both and replace both sensors with GM parts. And I still have the same problem dies on deceleration and crank no start till it sits for a couple of hours. So i did some more research and replace oil with synthetic oil new filter. also change timing chain sprockets,chain, oil pump, camshaft actuator mechanical and electrical component.Oh yeah i also did a camshaft relearn with a tech 2 and im still having the same problem of dies when deceleration and crank no start. anyone have any ideas help is appreciated.
Hi i have a toyota avensus d4 vvt-i im having noise when startup getting a p0016 code