P2563 – Turbocharger (TC) boost control position sensor- range/performance problem

Reinier

By Reinier (Contact Me)
Last Updated 2017-05-23
Automobile Repair Shop Owner

Trouble CodeFault LocationProbable Cause
P2563 Turbocharger (TC) boost control position sensor- range/performance problem Wiring, TC boost control position sensor

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What Does Code P2563 Mean?

OBD II fault code P2563 is a generic code hat is defined as “Turbocharger (TC) boost control position sensor- range/performance problem”, and is set when the PCM (Powertrain Control Module) detects an abnormal or implausible signal from the turbocharger boost control position sensor, given the current operating conditions such as engine load, and engine speed. Note that this code indicates a problem with the either the electrical control circuit of the turbocharger boost control position sensor or the position sensor itself, and rarely (if ever) involves malfunctions of the turbocharger itself. Also note that while this code can apply to virtually any OBD II-compliant vehicle that has a turbocharger, this code typically occurs most frequently on some Hyundai and Kia applications.

In terms of operation, the TBCPS (The Turbo Boost Control Position Sensor) converts the turbo chargers’ boost pressure into an electrical signal, which signal the PCM uses both to calculate appropriate fuel delivery and ignition timing strategies based on the boost pressure being developed, and to “fine-tune” the level of boost pressure that is required by the engine at any given moment. The latter function of the TBCPS is to prevent over boost conditions that can seriously damage the engine, as well as under boost conditions that have serious negative effects on engine power.

Note that the operation of the turbo charger is independent of the TBCPS. If the turbo charger is in good condition and operating as designed, a fully functional TBCPS will merely convert the boost pressure being developed into an electrical signal, which will either alert the PCM that the maximum boost pressure had been reached on the one hand, or that insufficient boost pressure is being developed on the other hand. In the former case, the PCM will open a waste gate to reduce the turbo chargers’ rotational speed to reduce boost, or, if the boost pressure is insufficient to suit current operating conditions, the PCM will close the waste gate to increase the turbo chargers’ rotational speed, thereby increasing boost pressure.

From  the above it should be obvious that the correct operation the TBCPS and its associated electrical control circuit   is essential to the efficient operation of the turbo charger, which will produce boost pressure for as long as the engine is producing exhaust gas to drive the turbo chargers’  turbine wheel. Thus, when the PCM detects a signal from the TBCPS that is either higher or lower than expected given the current operating conditions, it recognizes that it can no longer control boost pressure effectively, and it will set code P2563 and illuminate a warning light as a result.

The image below shows a typical Turbo Charger Boost Control Position Sensor from a Hyundai application. Note however that the appearance and location of Turbo Charger Boost Control Position Sensors vary greatly between applications- from being directly mounted on the turbo charger casing, to being mounted on the inlet manifold. Always consult the repair manual for the affected application to locate and identify all components correctly to avoid misdiagnoses, wasted time, and the possible unnecessary replacement of parts and components.

turbocharger-boost-sensor

What are the common causes of code P2563?

Common causes of code P2563 could include the following-

  • Damaged, burnt, shorted, disconnected, or corroded wiring and or connectors
  • Defective turbocharger boost control position sensor
  • In rare cases, this code can be caused by restrictions in the inlet or exhaust system
  • Failed or failing PCM. Note that this is a rare event, and the fault must be sought elsewhere before any control module is replaced

What are the symptoms of code P2563?

Common symptoms of code P2563 could include the following-

  • Stored trouble code and possibly an illuminated warning light
  • Power loss that can vary from slight at certain engine speeds, to severe at all engine speeds
  • Fuel consumption may increase considerably
  • Engine may hesitate or stumble upon acceleration
  • In some cases, severe engine damage may result if the Turbo boost pressure cannot be controlled effectively

How do you troubleshoot code P2563?

NOTE #1: Non-professional mechanics should take note that the signal voltage from the TBCPS is also checked by the PCM when the ignition is switched on, but the engine is not running (KOEO). In practice, this means that since a stationary turbo charger cannot produce boost pressure, it is entirely possible that the code could have set as the result of excessively high exhaust back pressure caused by clogged mufflers and/or catalytic converters, or restrictions in the inlet tract during the previous drive cycle. These are relatively common causes of code P2563 on older vehicles, so have the exhaust system inspected first before replacing any major components if the diagnostic/repair steps below do not resolve the problem.

NOTE #2: A dedicated turbo boost pressure gauge may prove useful to verify actual boost pressure independently of the TBCPS.

Step 1

Record all fault codes present, as well as all available freeze frame data. This information could be of use should an intermittent fault be diagnosed later on.

Step 2

Refer to the manual to locate and identify the TBCPS, as well as its associated wiring. Also determine the color-coding, routing, and function of all related wiring all the way up to the PCM, since it may be necessary to test the reference voltage being delivered by the PCM.

Perform a thorough visual inspection of all related wiring and connectors. Look for damaged, burnt, shorted, disconnected, or corroded wiring and/or connectors. If the TBCPS is located on or near the turbo charger, pay particular attention to the condition of the connector and wiring leading from it, since the extremely high temperatures at this location often cause the insulation on wiring and connectors to fail.

Pull the connector apart, and inspect the pins/terminals for signs of heat damage or corrosion. Replace the connector and wiring (as opposed to attempting repairs) if there is any doubt about the condition or serviceability of any part of the connector or wiring. Clear all codes after repairs are complete, and operate the vehicle normally before rescanning the system to see if the code returns.

Step 3

If the code persists but the wiring is free of visible damage, prepare to test the actual boost pressure being developed.

Most manufacturers supply a dedicated testing point somewhere on the inlet tract; attach the boost pressure gauge securely to this point, and start the engine. The manual will provide details on the minimum and maximum allowable pressures, so follow the directions in the manual to obtain the most accurate test results.

If the boost pressure falls within the specified range, prepare to test the wiring and the TBCPS itself.

NOTE: If the turbo chargers’ actual boost pressure does not meet the minimum allowable pressure, check both the inlet tract and exhaust system for restrictions or blockages. Replace the air filter element if it is excessively dirty or clogged, and verify that the exhaust system allows the free extraction of exhaust gas before continuing the diagnostic procedure, or replacing any major components.

Step 4

If it is certain that both the inlet tract and exhaust system are free of restrictions, but the fault persists, prepare to perform reference voltage, resistance, ground integrity, and continuity tests on all associated wiring.

Start by testing the reference voltage. Note that on some applications, this voltage is equal to battery voltage, while on others, it will be 5 volts. Determine the correct voltage, and test between the sensor connector and the PCM connector. If this voltage does not check out, check again across all intervening connectors until the problem is found and repaired.

NOTE: If the reference voltage is too low, follow the directions in the manual to test the actual reference voltage being delivered by the PCM. However, take extreme care during this step to prevent accidental short circuits that can destroy the PCM and other control modules. Replace the PCM according to the instructions in the manual if the PCM delivers less than the specified reference voltage.

If the reference voltage checks out, perform resistance testing on the signal wire, but be sure to disconnect the TBCPS from the PCM to prevent damage to the controller during resistance and/or continuity tests. Compare all obtained readings with the values stated in the manual, and repair or replace wiring as required to ensure that all electrical values fall within the ranges specified by the manufacturer.

Clear all codes after repairs are complete, and operate the vehicle normally before rescanning the system to see if the code returns.

Step 5

If all wiring checks out but the fault persists, consult the manual on the correct procedure to follow to test the TBCPS itself. Pay particular attention to the sensors’ internal resistance, since this value is a reasonably good indicator of the sensors’ overall condition. If the sensors’ resistance does not conform to specified values, replace it with an OEM part to ensure proper operation and a reasonable service life.

NOTE: On many applications it is necessary to adapt the replacement sensor to the PCM, but for the most part, the relearning process is no more complicated than completing one or two complete drive cycles. Consult the manual to see if this required for the affected application, and be sure to follow the instructions exactly to ensure proper operation of the new sensor.

Clear all codes after repairs are complete, and operate the vehicle normally before rescanning the system to see if the code returns.

Step 6

In the unlikely event that the fault persists beyond Step 5, the wiser option would be to refer the vehicle to the dealer, or other competent repair shop for professional diagnosis and repair. Although code P2653 is seldom (if ever) caused by the turbo charger itself, it is not altogether impossible, but turbo charger diagnostics is a highly specialized field, and some types of problem only occur during certain conditions, which the average non-professional mechanic is generally unable to replicate.

Moreover, some turbo problems (such as unbalanced turbine/compressor wheels), can slow the unit down to the point where insufficient boost is produced. Problems such as this require specialized equipment both to diagnose and repair, so do NOT attempt any diagnostics on the turbo itself, lest you cause damage where there was none before.

Codes Related to P2563

  • P2562 – Relates to “Turbocharger Boost Control Position Sensor “A” Circuit”
  • P2564 – Relates to “Turbocharger Boost Control Position Sensor “A” Circuit Low”
  • P2565 – Relates to “Turbocharger Boost Control Position Sensor “A” Circuit High”
  • P2566 – Relates to “Turbocharger Boost Control Position Sensor “A” Circuit Intermittent”

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