P2441 – Secondary air injection (AIR) switching valve, bank 1 – valve stuck closed


By Reinier (Contact Me)
Last Updated 2017-05-24
Automobile Repair Shop Owner

CodeFault LocationProbable Cause
P2441 Secondary air injection (AIR) switching valve, bank 1 - valve stuck closed
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What Does Code P2441 Mean?

SPECIAL NOTES: Non-professional mechanics should take note that the setting parameters and conditions for code P2441 – “Secondary air injection (AIR) switching valve, bank 1 “valve stuck closed” vary greatly between applications and manufacturers. For this reason, this guide cannot provide diagnostic and repair information that will be valid or accurate for all applications under all conditions. Therefore, the information provided here is intended for general informational purposes only, and it should NOT be used in any diagnostic / repair procedure for code P2441 (and / or its related codes) without making proper reference to the repair manual for the affected application. 

Moreover, it should also be noted that while the Secondary Air Injection system on most vehicles is relatively simple, accessing some components of these systems for the purposes of testing is sometimes very challenging even for professional mechanics that have access to special tools and equipment. In many cases, gaining access to some components of Secondary Air Injection systems requires the removal or disassembly of other, unrelated components such as inlet manifolds and others, in procedures that require some mechanical aptitude and skill.

Additionally, properly diagnosing this code typically requires the use of a professional-grade scanner that has control functions, since various components need to be commanded open and closed, or turned on and off at various times during the diagnostic / repair procedure. While there are “workarounds” around this issue, it is NOT recommended that non-professional mechanics avail themselves of these methods, since serious mechanical damage can result if for instance the Secondary Air Pump itself is allowed to run for longer than a period specified by the manufacturer, which periods typically vary between 5 seconds and 30 seconds, with prescribed “cooling off” periods between each test run.

Thus, this guide can only provide a few generic diagnostic /repair steps, which may or may not resolve the problem. If the information provided here does not resolve the problem, the better option would be to refer the vehicle to the dealer or other competent repair shop for professional diagnosis and repair. END OF SPECIAL NOTES. 

OBD II fault code P2441 is a generic code that is defined as “Secondary air injection (AIR) switching valve, bank 1 “valve stuck closed”, and is set when the PCM (Powertrain Control Module) detects a problem with the switching valve that allows ambient air to enter the exhaust manifold to aid in heating up the catalytic converter to reduce harmful emissions after a cold start. Note that the term “Bank 1” in this definition refers to the bank of cylinders that contains cylinder #1 on engines with two cylinder heads.

The sole function of the Secondary Air Injection system is to pump cool ambient air into the exhaust system for a set period after a cold start. The added air helps to increase the exhaust temperature, which has the effect of  bringing the catalytic converter into closed loop operation much sooner than would have been the case had additional air not been injected. “Closed loop” operation refers to a condition where the PCM is able to use input data generated by the catalytic converter, which only happens after the converted had reached its design operating temperature.

In terms of operation, the exhaust system is fitted with pressure sensors that detect when exhaust gas starts to flow. This information is communicated to the PCM, which then starts the air injection pump, and opens a switching valve to allow the injected air to enter the exhaust system upstream of the catalytic converter. On most applications, the switching valve is operated by a vacuum solenoid that uses engine vacuum drawn from the inlet manifold. Thus, if the switching valve is open, the PCM measures the pressure of the injected air with a dedicated pressure sensor, and should the actual pressure at this point be lower than the expected  pressure, the PCM concludes that the switching valve is either closed, or otherwise defective, and it will set code P2441 as a result. Not though that while code P2441 will set on the first failure on some applications, other applications may require as many as four failure cycles before the code will set.

While the above description of the Secondary Air Injection system is a gross oversimplification, it should serve to illustrate the basic operating principles of the system. Refer to the image below for more details. Note that the component marked “Electric switch over valve (EUV) in this much-simplified schematic is the valve that opens and closes the valve (here marked as “Cut-off secondary air valve) that allows injected air to enter the exhaust system.



What are the common causes of code P2441?

Common causes of code P2441 could include the following-

  • Defective vacuum check valves
  • Leaking, split, perforated, or otherwise damaged vacuum lines
  • Damaged, burnt, shorted, disconnected, or corroded wiring and or connectors
  • Defective pressure sensors
  • Defective switch over valve
  • Defective vacuum solenoid
  • Failed or failing PCM. Note that this is a rare event, and the fault must be sought elsewhere before any control module is replaced

What are the symptoms of code P2441?

Common symptoms of code P2441 could include the following-

  • Stored trouble code and possibly an illuminated warning light
  • Air injection system may be noisy
  • Engine may idle roughly, or may not idle at all immediately after a cold start
  • Engine may stumble or hesitate upon acceleration after a cold start
  • Fuel consumption may increase
  • Some applications. Most notably some Toyota models, may enter limp mode when this code is present

How do you troubleshoot code P2441?

NOTE #1: To save time, clear all codes after each step after repairs are complete before operating the vehicle and rescanning the system to see if the code returns.

NOTE #2: A hand-held vacuum pump fitted with a graduated gauge may prove useful in diagnosing this code.

Step 1

Record all fault codes present, as well as all available freeze frame data. This information could be of use should an intermittent fault be diagnosed later on.

NOTE: Pay particular attention to other codes that may be present, since on some applications, again, most notably some Toyota models, some systems such as Traction Control, Cruise Control and others are deactivated by default when P2441 is present on these applications. Disregard codes relating to these systems on affected applications until P2441 had been resolved. However, all other codes that precede P2441 on all other applications should be resolved before attempting a diagnosis of P2441. Failure to do this will almost certainly result in a misdiagnosis, wasted time, and quite possibly the unnecessary replacement of expensive parts and components.

Step 2

Refer to the manual to locate and identify all relevant parts, components, wiring, connectors, and vacuum lines correctly. Use this opportunity to also determine the exact location, routing, and color-coding of all associated wiring to avoid confusion later on. Also be sure to locate and identify all associated relays and /or fuses.

NOTE: Failed or defective vacuum check valves are a common cause of this code, so make sure that all related vacuum check valves are located and identified.

Step 3

As a first step, check all related fuses, and replace any (with their exact equivalents) that are blown, or merely suspect with their exact equivalents. If the system is controlled by relays, refer to the manual for the correct procedure to follow to test the operation of the relays. Replace all and any relays that do not conform to specifications.

If all fuses and relays check out, remove all related vacuum check valves, and test their operation. A vacuum check valve should only allow air to pass through them in one direction. Generally speaking, it should be possible to blow air through a check valve; if not, the valve is likely clogged or defective. If air passes through a check valve in both directions, it is also defective and it must be replaced. Replace all and any defective vacuum check valves, but be sure to refit them correctly- refer to the manual to determine in which direction air should pass through the check valves. Installing a check valve the wrong way round could cause the system not to function.

Step 4

If all fuses, relays and vacuum check valves check out but the fault persists, refer to the manual for the correct procedure to follow to test the operation of the secondary air pump itself. Bear in mind that the pump cannot run for longer than a period that is set by the manufacturer, therefore, this step is merely to confirm that the pump actually works when it is activated. Do NOT allow the pump to run for longer than is absolutely necessary to confirm that it works or not.

NOTE: Keep in mind though that code P2441 is not concerned with whether the air pump works or not. The object of Step 4 is to determine whether or not the defective switching valve and/or its control circuit are preventing the pump from starting.

Step 5

If the air pump starts, continue the diagnostic procedure by inspecting all associated vacuum lines. Look for any sort of damage to vacuum lines, but also check that all lines are attached securely. Since even a minor vacuum leak can affect the operation of the system. Replace vacuum lines as required, and/or repair all vacuum line connections as required to ensure that the vacuum system is leak proof.

Step 6

If the fault persists, prepare to test the operation of the vacuum solenoid that operates the switch over valve. Attach the vacuum pump to the valve, but be sure to not exceed the test vacuum value specified in the manual both to obtain the most accurate test results, and to prevent damage to the vacuum solenoid.

If the vacuum holds, the vacuum solenoid is fine. However, if the vacuum decays however slowly and the test equipment is not defective in any way, the solenoid valve is defective, and it must be replaced.

Step 7

If the fault persists beyond Step 6, it is likely that the switch over valve is stuck in the closed position. However, verifying this is not always easy, and given its often-inaccessible location, it is not always possible to simply remove the valve on a DIY basis to check its condition.

Therefore, it is recommended that a thorough visual inspection of all associated wiring and connectors be performed. Look for damaged, burnt, shorted, disconnected, or corroded wiring and/or connectors. Make repairs as required.

If no visible damage is found, be sure to refer to the manual for the correct procedure to follow to test associated wiring for resistance, ground integrity, continuity, and reference voltages. Bear in mind that all sensors and other electrical components in the system form part of the overall control system, and as such, the internal resistance and/or continuity of these components must be tested as well. Replace components whose resistance does not agree with the values specified by the manufacturer.

WARNING: Test procedures vary greatly between applications and manufacturers, so be absolutely sure to follow the instructions in the manual EXACTLY to obtain the most accurate test results. Note that while some manufacturers allow the use of simple 12V test lights to verify continuity, it must be stated that test lights cannot measure resistance, which means that resistance issues in the wiring may remain undetected unless a digital multimeter is used to perform all tests.     

Compare all obtained readings with the values stated in the manual, and make repairs or replace wiring as required to ensure that all electrical values fall within the ranges specified by the manufacturer.

Step 8

If the fault still persists despite having performed the steps above, it becomes necessary to remove the actual switch over valve from the system to check its condition. However, due to the large number of secondary air injection system designs in use today, this guide cannot offer detailed information on how to go about this, except to state that the removal instructions in the manual MUST be followed exactly to prevent possible damage to other, unrelated components.

As stated elsewhere, it may sometimes be necessary to remove other, unrelated components to gain access to the valve. If there is any doubt about your technical abilities to perform the required disassembly, do NOT continue the procedure beyond Step 7. Rather play it safe, and refer the vehicle to the dealer or other competent repair shop for professional diagnosis and repair.

Codes Related to P2441

  • P2440 – Relates to “Secondary Air Injection System Switching Valve Stuck Open Bank 1”

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